URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

A URL, or Uniform Resource Locator, is a web address used to locate and access resources on the internet. It serves as a unique identifier for a particular resource, such as a webpage, document, image, or file. URLs consist of various components that provide information on how to access the resource.

A URL is like the address of a house, but for websites. It tells your web browser exactly where to go to find a specific webpage or resource on the internet.


Key Components of a URL:

Scheme/Protocol: Indicates the protocol used to access the resource (e.g., “https://” for secure websites, “http://” for non-secure).

Domain Name: The human-readable address of the website (e.g., “”).

Path: Specifies the specific location or page within the website’s structure.

Query Parameters: Additional information or parameters passed to the server, often used in dynamic web pages.

Fragment/Anchor: Points to a specific section within a webpage.

Example of a URL:
Scheme: “https://”
Domain Name: “”
Path: “/blog/article”
Query Parameters: “?id=123”
Fragment/Anchor: “#section2”

URLs with “http://” indicate a standard, non-secure connection, while “https://” indicates a secure connection using SSL/TLS encryption.

Importance of URL Structure:

Well-structured URLs are user-friendly, provide information about the content, and contribute to search engine optimization (SEO).

Relative URLs vs. Absolute URLs:

Absolute URLs: Provide the complete path, including the domain (e.g., “”).

Relative URLs: Specify the path relative to the current location (e.g., “/page” or “images/image.jpg”).

URL Encoding:

Special characters in URLs are encoded to ensure proper interpretation by browsers and servers. For example, spaces are encoded as “%20.”

Bookmarking and Sharing:

Users can bookmark URLs to easily revisit specific web pages, and sharing a URL allows others to access the same resource.

Why it Matters:

Access to Resources: URLs are the foundation of web navigation, allowing users to access specific resources on the internet.

SEO Considerations: Well-optimized URLs contribute to a website’s search engine ranking and user experience.

Linking: URLs are used for linking between web pages and sharing resources across the internet.

In summary, a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a web address that uniquely identifies and locates resources on the internet. It consists of various components, including the protocol, domain name, path, query parameters, and fragment, providing instructions on how to access a specific resource. URLs play a fundamental role in web navigation, bookmarking, and sharing of online content.